SECTION 1: INFORMATION SOURCES
SECTION 2: DATA SHEETS
SECTION 3: PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT
SECTION 4: CONTROL
SECTION 5: ASSESSMENT SHEETS
SECTION 6: BIBLIOGRAPHY
SECTION 1 – INFORMATION SOURCES
Information on substances used at work can be obtained from a wide variety of sources. It is not merely a matter of asking the supplier – some materials have no. external supplier in the sense that they are produced within the workplace itself; by-products, intermediates, even the final product of the process. Whatever the source of the material, nothing effective can be done by way of control unless the chemical components are known. This is necessary in order to select the least toxic of a number of alternative materials which may be available and to be able to render appropriate medical treatment in cases of exposure, as well as to achieve safe and legal disposal of waste, and to introduce the right control measures.
Section 10 of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act 1989 places duties onsuppliers of substances. It shall be the duty of any person who designs, manufactures, imports or supplies any articles for use at work to:-
(a) ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the articles is. designed, constructed, tested and examined so as to be safe and without risk to health when used by a person at a place of work;
(b) take such steps as are necessary to secure that persons supplied by that person with the articles are provided with adequate information etc.
Additionally, necessary steps must be taken to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that persons so supplied are provided with revisions of such information as are necessary by reason of its becoming known that rise to anything gives a serious risk to health or safety.
The supplier’s information should be sufficient to enable the constituents of the material to be identified, describing the specific hazards of the product, dangerous conditions which may arise, and the necessary safety precautions. It is common ground amongst recipients that the standard of suppliers’ information varies enormously. In a 1974 US Government survey it was found that firms questioned used 95,000 different trade-named products, and that the composition of 90% of these products was not known to the companies using them. Disclosure of composition of products is not a requirement under SAHAWA, and suppliers sometime claim that the formulation is a trade secret. A useful review of manufacturers’ attitudes and the user’s need to know is contained in “Chemical Risk” by Maurice Frankel of Social Audit (Pluto Press, 1982). The book suggests that employers should adopt a policy of not using trade-named substances unless their composition is fully known. This means the provision of a data sheet (see below). The simplest test of the adequacy of suppliers’ information is whether there is sufficient information to allow the user to carry out a COSHH assessment.
Chemical Components of Hazardous Substances
Once the type of chemical composition is known, information can be sought from a variety of sources. The supplier’s data sheet should not be used sources should alone; other be used to check that what is supplied is fact, or else that the basis for the opinion can be justified. Specialist information is available from Eolas which is accessible to the public.
Data becomes less reliable and less available for mixtures, for which there is often little toxicological information. Some compounds exhibit the so-called “synergistic effect” in association with others, and a knowledge of this possibility is necessary for those evaluating hazards. for example, the combined effect of asbestos dust and the products of tobacco smoke in the lungs produces a greatly increased risk of lung cancer. Medical evidence suggests that for an estimate of lung cancer risk in people who smoke and are exposed to asbestos, you must multiply (as opposed to add) the separate individual risks from these agents. This obviously results in a much greater level of overall risk.
SECTION 2 – DATA SHEETS
This section discusses the desirable contents of a data sheet received by the end user, in this case the person carrying out the COSHH assessment. One of the main recommendations of this is that the Defence Forces performing assessments, should produce its own internal data sheets compiling them from the suppliers’ information into a standard format which can’ then be assembled into a COSHH information pack for the organisation.
It is therefore necessary to devise a set of headings of information which constitutes the minimum information needed to identify and control the hazard (if any) adequately.
Appropriate Contents of Safety Data Sheets
|1. Product and Company Identification
|Trade Name Company Name, Division, Address Issue Date of Data Sheet Emergency Advice Telephone Number
|2. Information On Ingredients
|Chemical Name(s) Mixture Ingredients Rough Proportions
|3. Physico-Chemical Data
|Appearance Odour Boiling Point Melting/Freezing Point Flash Point Auto-F lammability Explosive Properties PH Value (As Supplied) Vapour Pressure Relative Density Viscosity Solubility Partition Co-Efficient Other Selected Data
|Condition To Avoid (Temperature,Pressure, Light, Shock) Materials To Avoid Hazardous Decomposition Products
|Conditions Of Storage Specifying Limits Handling Precautions
|6. Personal Protection
|RPE Hand Protection Eye Protection Skin Protection
|Suitable Extinguishing Media Unsuitable Extinguishing Media Specialist Protective Equipment for Firefighters
|8. Measures In Case Of Accidental Release
|Personal Precautions Environmental Precautions Clean-Up Methods
|9. Health Hazard Toxicity Data
|Concise,. understandable descriptions of toxicological effects, including exposure routes, symptoms of both gross short-termover exposure and of longer-term lesser exposure, delayed effects and information about any relevant occupationa] exposure limit
|10. First Aid Measures
|Brief, understandable, subdivided by exposure route, include delayed effects and whether immediate medical attention is required. Notes To Physicians
|11. Ecological Information
|Mobility Persistence Degradability Aquatic Toxicology
|12. Waste Disposal
|Environmental Impact Assessment Methods Of Disposal Handling Of Contaminated Packaging
|Transport Regulation Requirements
|14. Hazard Labelling
|CPL Hazard Classification Description
For Defence Forces data sheets it will be neither appropriate nor necessary to include all the above fields of information. of comprehension, and selection will be required of what is needed and the necessary contents of each field which will be appropriate and relevant for the end users.
SECTION 3 – PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT
All substances potentially hazardous to health, can be that managed safely provided a suitable strategy has been devised and is in place. Such a Strategy will contain four parts:-
OBTAINING AND PASSING ON KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE CHEMICAL.
THE ASSESSMENT OF HAZARDS POSED BY IT, ITS USE, IT BY-PRODUCTS, DISPOSAL AND STORAGE.
CONTROL OF THE CHEMICAL, USING ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES, SAFE OPERATING PROCEDURES AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.
- MONITORING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CONTROL STRATEGY.
The term assessment encompasses not only the assessment of the hazards and risks involved, but also the subsequent development of control techniques applicable to the substance in question. An assessment therefore, should be regarded as a total strategy, and is best set down in writing.
This Standard uses the words hazard and risk. The words have specific and different meanings. A hazard is a situation with a potential to cause .injury or damage. A hazardous substance is one which, by virtue of its chemical properties, constitutes.a hazard. A risk is the probability or likelihood of the hazard actually causing a degree of injury or damage. Thus assessment of a hazardous substance is based solely on the properties of the substance, whereas assessment of the risk needs a review of these properties in the light of the specific way substances are handled, used or encountered at work and judgement of whether the risk to people, (and property and the environment) is tolerable.
How Hazardous Substances Are Encountered At Work
Every workshop and most offices, shops and other workplaces, handle chemicals. Hazardous substances may be encountered at work in five main ways:-
- as raw materials for manufacturing or service processes. Examples are solvents for degreasing paints used to coat the product or for respraying cars, fertilisers in agriculture, and toners for dry copiers;
- as engineering and cleaning materials, such as lubricants, cutting oils, water treatment chemicals, decorative paints, toilet cleaner and bleaches:
- for service functions, such as adhesives, correcting fluids;
- as products of the process, whether as intended products, by-products, waste products or intermediates; or
- as incidental products such as the Legionella micro-organism, vehicle exhaust fumes or ozone from copiers.
The Hazards Of Chemicals
The principle groups of chemicals are those classified as very toxic, toxic, harmful, corrosive or irritant, under the EEC Regulations governing classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances. There are three other groups: micro-organisms, unclassified substances and dust. Dust is defined as hazardous if it is present in substantial quantity, even if it has no apparently harmful properties covered in DFSS 1 1991.
Some substances have hazards which could endanger many people immediately in a Single incident. Others may be the cause of disease which could take many years to develop. Substances can be categorised according to the type of harm they can cause; many substances fall into more than one category.
Corrosive chemicals, such as strong acids or strong bases, will attack other materials or people. Chemical burns are usually painful, deep-seated and slow to heal.
Irritants such as acrylates may affect the skin, causing problems like. dermatitis, or they can affect the respiratory tract. Some people may also be allergic to certain sensitisers such as isocyanates and epoxy resins.
Agents of anoxia are those vapours or gases which dilute the oxygen available in the air or prevent the body using it effectively. Examples are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide.
Toxic substances are those which can harm the body, in a number of ways. Often, these work by damaging an organ such as the liver or kidneys. Examples are chlorinated solvents and the heavy metals.
A few substances can prevent the correct development and growth of the cells of the body. Carcinogens can cause or promote the growth of unwanted cells, as a cancer. Teratogens may cause an embryo to develop abnormally, and to be born with defects or be stillborn. Mutagens can cause cell changes with an attendant risk of cancer.
Effects Of Hazardous Substances
Apart from their innate hazardous properties, the ease with which substances can enter the body and the body entry route are further crucial factors in determining the total harmful effect. Substances may penetrate the skin, either through cuts, or if they are fat solvents, through intact skin. They may be ingested through the mouth, often as a result of poor standards of hygiene. Normally the most important route of entry though is through the respiratory system. This is because the respiratory system can be a very efficient and sensitive method of transferring materials from the outside environment into the body.
Substances may cause harmful health effects from a single dose, or from an accumulation of smaller doses, or from continuous exposure over long periods. The effect may be acute illness, or a chronic, long term disease.
Single doses do not necessarily cause only acute disease, neither are cumulative doses the only causes of chronic disease.
Who will be judged competent to carry out an assessment? The simple answer is – anyone, provided that the result provides adequate control of all the potential hazards deriving from substances used, produced, stored and handled at work. Persons must have expertise commensurate with the risk, process complexity and variability. For most Units using substances, there will be people in place with special or certainly adequate, knowledge of those substances.
The aim of this Section is to provide such an approach, which can be logged in the format suggested by the accompanying charts. The approach has the benefit of “showing the working” and also minimises the chances of missing a substance or failing to complete the assessment. The charts include an assessment sheet to record the results of air sampling exercises, and provides a File Record.
Assessment – A Structured Approach
Obtaining And Passing On Knowledge
- Prepare lists of chemicals, substances, mixtures which are used, bought in, produced in the location/activity, or to which employees are otherwise exposed at work.
- Consolidate the lists, and prepare a suitable Data Sheet.
- Marshall information from suppliers, external data sources, industry associations, etc., on the properties and hazards.
- Summarise the basic hazards (if any) of each substance in the list.
- Prepare summary data sheets on substances judged to be hazardous to a common pattern, and distribute to interested parties.
Assessment Of Risks In Practice
- Assess each process using the substances listed.
- Identify substances defined “hazardous to health”.
- Review all substances and associated hazards to identify further hazards or rule against unacceptable processes or practices.
- Assess likely exposure to the substances listed, including any exposure of non-employees.
- Compare this with a standard. (Provided through Eolas).
- Decide on need for air sampling and for biological monitoring and who should perform this, to assist in (4) and (5).
- If air sampling is required, record the results.
- Ensure medica1 records are kept in respect of any personal biological monitoring carried out.
Control Of Hazards And Risks
- For each chemical, decide and record how it is to be controlled.
- Produce, or review, safe operating procedures in written form for each substance deemed to be hazardous, to cover processes and controL measures.
- Ensure that specific reference is made to appropriate personal protective equipment necessary, by type and/or irish/British Standard.
- Establish a procedure for reviewing control] measures.
- Establish the frequency of any required air sampling as an on-going check, recording the results.
- Set up necessary arrangements for maintenance, examination and testing of local exhaust ventilation and other appropriate control measures.
- Establish procedures for supplying and maintaining personal protective equipment.
- Establish a procedure for incorporating newly-acquired substances, new hazard information or changed work practices into the assessment.
- Establish the training process as appropriate.
- Agree with Supervisors the frequency at which the assessment will be repeated in full or in part.
- Sign and date the finished assessment, and decide on distribution of
The next part of the Section takes the four stages identified above in more detail, and should be read in conjunction with the Assessment Pro Formae.
1. Obtaining Knowledge
The necessary information on substances must be acquired and collated. Substances may be brought into an organisation for a number of purposes. They may be:-
|(a) Bought In As Raw Materials
|Raw Materials Solvents Products Which Generate Oust. During Processing Finishing chemicals
|(b) Produced As Part Of The Process
|Intended Products By-Products Waste Products Intermediate Products
|(c) Bought For Engineering And Cleaning
|Cleaning Solvents Bleaches Oils Water Treatment Chemicals General Cleaning Fluids
|(d) Bought For Service Functions
|Chemicals For Copiers Adhesives Correcting Fluids Sodium Hypochlorite For Swimming Pools
|(e) Produced By Other Means
|"Legionella" and Other Micro-Organisms Engine Fumes Welding Fumes Ozone From Copiers
It will be seen that “substances” includes not only simple materials but mixtures, intermediates, waste and final products.
The first stage in the obtaining of necessary knowledge is to prepare a complete of all substances that are bought, used or made on the premises. The list could be produced by a number of individuals, some of whom may approach the subject by listing the work activities and deriving the list from an analysis. Others may carry out physical audits of the workplace, stores areas and the like to forma list of substances known to be physically present. A combination of these different lists will be more thorough than the list produced by any single individual.
The second stage is the production (and re-ordering) of the list in tabular form, so that progress reached can be easily noted and compared. It will be found simpler to begin with raw materials and follow with processes and the remainder.
The third stage is the marshalling of all necessary information about each substance, compound, mixture or “pure” chemical. A primary source for this information, but never the only source or the complete source, should be the: supplier. As. discussed in the previous section, data sheets provided by suppliers will rarely contain all the necessary information, and may only highlight hazards thought by the supplier to be of particular relevance. Also, the layout of data sheets may vary and some suppliers may limit the information provided deliberately or by default.
The completion of the data sheets forces the fourth stage or preparation. (Other sources of information are listed in the bibliography. (The assessor should be in possession of a current copy of at least one of the principal standard works on chemical hazards.)
Although some suppliers are reluctant to reveal the chemical] composition of their products on grounds of alleged commercial confidentiality, there can be few, if any, occasions on which commercial confidentiality can be justified as grounds for not supplying health and safety information. It is not possible to assess the control of a chemical adequately unless its nature is known. All chemical components of mixtures and proprietary products should be established and listed in the data sheet.
Once the data sheet is produced, it should be made readily available to any employee who may need the information, especially safety representatives. Training needs, which will be assessed regularly, will include the use of data sheets as well as the hazards associated with the specific substances encountered by trainees. A copy of the compiled data sheets should also be held by the person or persons responsible for first-aid.
The fifth stage of preparation consists of summarising the basic hazards of the substances. This information should already be present in the individual data sheets, and can usefully be tabulated alongside the name of the substances.
2. The Assessment Of Risk
The risk associated with a substance depends not only on its inherent properties (which have just been listed), but also upon the way it is to be used and the way in which it can be misused or mishandled. Before any control measures can be decided upon, every process using substances must be assessed. The depth of the assessment need not be the same in all cases, for instance if the substance concerned has a low hazard rating, or if the type of process means that exposure to the substance is likely to be low regardless of any control measures which may be applied. However, if the substance is already identified as hazardous, or the process is such that people will be exposed at high levels unless specific control measures are adopted, then an assessment with a satisfactory outcome will become a (written) justification for continuing to use the process or the substance. Sometimes the result of the assessment will be that the process should stop or be replaced by a safer one.
At this point, identify the substances which are defined as “substances hazardous to health”. These substances should be listed. The listing should contain three categories of substances:-
(a) Substances definitely classified as “hazardous to health”.
(b) Substances definitely not so classified.
(c) Substances needing further consideration or investigation.
Even for category (b), further evaluation should still be continued, of course, Since it is possible that the ways in which these substances are used in practice may make them hazardous by virtue of their quantity, temperature, etc. (Even though a substance may not be classed as “hazardous” under this scheme, it should be remembered that the assessment is a useful tool to identify all potentially hazardous substances, and it will be of value to pursue the assessment to ensure that even the lower-order hazards are adequately managed.)
Next, all the substances in the list should be reviewed to see where they are used on the premises. Each process should then be examined to see how the substances are used, what possibility there is for people to come into contact with them, the type of effect they can cause and the likely levels of exposure. The assessment must also look at chemical products, intermediates and possible products of an unwanted reaction, as well as the substances listed. (Fire and explosion risks should be investigated as well as the risks to health of substances and processes.) All the information necessary for doing this part of the assessment should already be contained on the hazard data sheets.
The assessment must also examine the possibility of substances becoming airborne as gas, vapour, dust or aerosol. Handling methods, spills or leaks and the possibility of ingestion must be considered, as airborne contaminants are not the only danger in the workplace. Ingestion and skin contact must also be evaluated. There may be a situation such as during work in tanks, sewers or other confined spaces, where vapours or gases may suddenly enter the workplace. Assessments need to consider all such possibilities.
Access the likely exposure of all those likely to become exposed. Special attention should be paid to recognising the possible presence of other people where the process is being carried out.
These assessments of exposure must then be compared with a known standard. These standards are generically referred to as “occupational exposure limits” (OELs). Most exposure limits are presented as concentrations in air of the substance concerned, as parts per million by volume in air (ppm) or weight per volume of air (mg/m3). Exposure limits are not to be regarded as dividing lines between safe and dangerous concentrations; rather they represent estimates based on more or less sound information of what people might reasonably be exposed to, day after day at work, without suffering obvious ill-effects. The exposure limits cannot safeguard everyone, some people already suffering from another disease may be at risk even if the exposure limit is met, others may be extra-sensitive. None of the lists offers standards on more than a few hundred of the many thousands of substances in regular use. These substances are given an OEL in EH40 produced by the Health and Safety Executive (UK) and available through Eolas.
If a substance is not in the list, it would be wise to set a local exposure limit, based on knowledge of the hazards of the substance and comparisons made with similar materials. Advice might valuably be sought from a toxicologist or other specialist adviser through EOLAS.
If the possibility of substances becoming airborne is low, and the concentration in air is thought unlikely ever to exceed a quarter of the OEL, then air sampling will not normally be needed. (Arranged through the Defence Advisory Group).
Whenever there is doubt as to the concentrations of hazardous substances in people’s breathing zones, or in the atmospheres of workplaces, then a carefully planned and suitable air sampling exercise should if possible be performed.
Similarly, if is suspected, as with some substances, that accumulation in the body is occurring, and there is an available biological monitoring technique for measuring this, then such a technique should be considered (i.e. blood/urine tests). Such tests are the province of the Director of Medical Services who will of course retain personal records:in accordance with regulations.
As regards both “operator breathing zone” and “static” air sampling, a wide variation in airborne concentrations across working shifts is likely to occur. The factors influencing this include: –
- the number of contaminant sources;
- the rates of release from each source:
- the nature and position of each source;
- the dispersion situation as influenced by ventilation, temperatures, etc;
The following further factors are also likely to influence the degree of personal exposure: –
- The work shift pattern;
- Reduced or nil exposure between shifts;
- Variation in process operation;
- Failure to follow precautions.
The main principles of planning and performing a responsible air sampling programme therefore include: –
- Always carefully monitor individual operator breathing zone concentrations (and not just background concentrations at static points).
- Do as much air sampling as reasonably practicable – the more results (if correctly interpreted) the greater likelihood of a correct overall conclusion.
- Carefully consider the suitability and stated accuracy of the air sampling and analytical technique(s) involved. (Such details are given in the HSE Methods for Detection of Hazardous Substances Series – “MDHS” Series). Further useful guidance is also given in HSE Guidance Note EH42 – (Monitoring Strategies for Toxic Substances). Sampling materials available from Eolas.
- Carefully record the results, conclusions and recommendations of each sampling exercise.
These steps, taken in sequence, will provide all necessary information on substance designated as “hazardous”. Decisions can then be made on the most appropriate controls.
SECTION 4 – CONTROL
At this stage in the assessment, information on the hazards of the materials and the likely exposure has been collected and tabulated. The final stage consists of making decisions on the best ways of controlling the hazards. This logical sequence of conducting the assessment permits review of existing control measures, which may well prove upon examination to be adequate. This can be stated, but it would be useful to note down what these measures are so that it can be demonstrated that a full assessment has indeed taken place on the date specified.
The techniques of control, in order of effectiveness, are:-
- elimination (including process change);
- local exhaust ventilation and reduced time exposure;
- dilution ventilation;
- use of personal protective equipment;
- personal hygiene and washing facilities;
Reviews of needs often reveal substances and processes which are no longer necessary. Otherwise, substitution is always the most desirable control followed by design and engineering techniques. Control systems which rely upon appropriate behaviour are always less effective than these and are more liable to failure. They each have a place in the effective management of chemical risks.
(a) Elimination/ Substitution
Can safer materials be used? There are some substances which should never be used. Others may be banned as a matter of policy. Rational justification should always be insisted upon from those who wish to use a more hazardous substance in preference to a less hazardous one.
Can the material be handled so that individuals need never come into contact with it?
Can we put it somewhere else? The system of isolation is required to prevent access effectively, or certainly restrict access to those who need to be there.
(d) Reduced Time Exposure
As already indicated OEL’s are time-related and it may well be possible to keep below them by reducing the period(s) of exposure.
When the hazard cannot be completely contained, ventilation systems can offer a possible solution. However, their design and installation is a specialised skill which must be done by competent ventilation engineers.
The two main methods of ventilation are general (dilution) ventilation and local exhaust ventilation (LEV). General ventilation allows the contaminant to be diluted by the introduction of fresh air into the workroom, This can be done by a general extractor fan, by blowing air into the room, or installation of air conditioning. Dilution ventilation of this kind can ensure that humidity and carbon dioxide levels are maintained within known limits, and is important generally for the control of the working environment.
It is also the preferred technique for controlling the atmosphere within a confined space. However, it is a very inefficient way of controlling specific air contaminant problems. For this, local exhaust ventilation is preferable since it captures emissions at source.
Ventilation systems only work well if they are used as intended and designed and when they are maintained in good condition. They require training of operators to use them effectively, and their performance must be monitored.
The best results are achieved by extracting contaminated air as close to the source as possible, or using an enclosure with extract ventilation such as a fume cupboard or paint spray booth.
(f) Personal Protective Equipment
The issuing of personal protective equipment against a hazard constitutes an explicit statement that nothing further can be done to control exposure other than by requiring operators to wear and maintain a personal piece of equipment. It should be recognised by all concerned that personal protective equipment is the last line of defence, and should never be selected as the first or only option where other control measures such as those discussed above are available. Personal protective equipment will be needed, though, then the other control measures will not be feasible, or will offer only partial control. Systems for the selection, use and maintenance of personal protective equipment must be thorough. Training and information are required in the selection process, as well as in the correct use and maintenance of it.
(g) Personal Hygiene and Washing Facilities
Where hazardous substances present a risk, particularly of skin contact and/or ingestion, the value of good personal hygiene and provision of adequate washing facilities is self-evident.
To be effective, all the foregoing control measures need the backup of training for all concerned.
Assessment is only the first step in complying with Safety Regulations in the use of chemicals. It will be necessary to make sure that the control strategies set out in the assessment are followed and are effective. This is why they should be reviewed. Assessment requires not only a review of risks, but also a review of the measures used to control the risks. Purchasing procedures, quality control, permit-to-work systems and access to plant if isolation is the chosen strategy all offer examples of such measures.
After the assessment has been completed, consideration should be given to methods of publicising the results where appropriate. The information produced by the assessment is the kind which is intended to be given to employees and to safety representatives, who are entitled to receive it and be consulted by Commanding Officers. (Section 13 of Safety Health and Welfare at Work Act.)
SECTION 5 – ASSESSMENT SHEETS
SECTION 6 – BIBLIOGRAPHY
Chemicals – A Bibliography: List of Health and Safety Executive/Health and Safety Commission References. HSE, UK. ;
Guidance Notes in the Environmental Hygiene (EH) Series. HSE, HMSO, UK.
Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. NIQOSH/OSHA, USA.
Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. International Labour Office, Geneva.
Cashman J. R. Hazardous Materials Emergencies. Technomic Publishing Co., USA.
Fundamentals of Industrial Hygiene. National Safety Council, USA.
Handbook of Occupational Hygiene. Kluwer Publishing Ltd., Brentford, Middlesex, UK.
Hazards Of Chemicals
Patty, F. A., Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Interscience Publishers, New York, USA
Encyclopedia of Chemical Toxicology. (2nd Edition). Kirk-Othmer, Wiley-Interscience, New York, USA.
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS). NIOSH, USA.
Gleason M. N. et al. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. The Williams Wilkins Co., USA.
Sax N. I., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Nan Nostrand Rheinhold Co., USA
Deichmann W. B. & Gervarde H. W. Toxicology of Drugs and Chemicals. Academic Press, USA
Stecher P. G. The Merck Index. Merck & Co. Inc., USA.
Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. NIOSH/OSHA, USA
Standards For Control And For labelling Of Chemicals
Occupation Exposure Limits for Airborne Toxic Substances. (Gives limits other information on standards applied by a number of countries). International Labour Office, Geneva.
Occupational Exposure Limits – Guidance Note EH40. (Revised Annually). HSE, HMSO , UK.
Threshold Limit Values (TLVs} and Biological Exposure Indices. (Revised Annually) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACHIH) Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
Information Approved for the Classification, Packaging and Labelling of Dangerous Substances (Authorised and Approved List) 1988. HMSO, UK.
An Introduction to Local Exhaust Ventilation HS(G)37. Health and Safety Executive , HMSO, UK
The Industrial Environment – Its Evaluation & Control. (1973) NIOSH , USA.
Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice. (17th Edition). American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) , USA.
Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems. (ANSI Standard Z9. 2). New York, USA.
CIBSE Guide. (Published in .sections). Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers London, UK.
Monitoring Strategies for Toxic Substances: Guidance Note EH42.
HSE, HMSO, UK .
Methods for the Determination of Hazardous Substances (IIDHS Series). HSE, UK.
Occupational Exposure Sampling Strategy Manual.
(Publication Number 77 – 173). NIOSH, USA
References acquired and produced by HSE Library and Information Services (UK ). Available through IRS-DIALTECH, Pergamon Infoline and Prestel.
Produced by International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre, International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland). Available on-line through IRS-D IALTECH
CHEMICAL SAFETY NEWSBASE
Produced by Royal Society of Chemistry (UK). Available on-line through IRS-DIALTEC, Pergamon Infoline .
Produced by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (USA). Available on-line through Pergamon Infoline.
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. Produced by NIOSH (USA).
EOLAS, Glasnevin, Dublin 9.
IRS DIALTECH, Department of Trade and Industry, Room 392, Ashdown House, 123 Victoria Street, London, SWlE 6RB. (Telephone 071 – 215 6578).
PERGAMON ORBIT INFOLINE, 12 Vandy Street, London, EC2A 2DE. (Telephone 071 – 377 4650) .
SILVER PLATTER, 10 Barley Mow Passage, London , W4 4PW . (Telephone 081 – 995 8242).
NIFAST, Nore Road, Glasnevin, Dublin 9.